K8s Structure

K8s Structure

March 19, 2024

Kubernetes directory Structure - source #

  1. /etc/kubernetes/: This folder contains the main configuration files for the Kubernetes control plane components.
  2. /etc/kubernetes/manifests/: This folder contains the YAML files for the Kubernetes system components that run as pods.
  3. /etc/kubernetes/pki/: This folder contains the public key infrastructure (PKI) files that are used for secure communication between the different components of the Kubernetes cluster.
  4. /etc/cni/net.d/: This folder contains the configuration files for Container Networking Interface (CNI) plugins used by Kubernetes to manage networking.
  5. /var/lib/kubelet/: This folder contains the actual data and volumes associated with each pod, as well as the config.yaml file for the kubelet.
  6. /opt/cni/bin: This folder contains the binary files for CNI plugins used by Kubernetes.
├── manifests/                       # YAML files defining Kubernetes resources
│   ├── etcd.yaml                    # etcd cluster manifest
│   ├── kube-apiserver.yaml          # kube-apiserver manifest
│   ├── kube-controller-manager.yaml # kube-controller-manager manifest
│   ├── kube-scheduler.yaml          # kube-scheduler manifest
│   ├── kube-proxy.yaml              # kube-proxy manifest
│   └── ...
├── pki/                             # Public Key Infrastructure for Kubernetes
│   ├── apiserver.crt                # Kubernetes API Server certificate
│   ├── apiserver.key                # Kubernetes API Server private key
│   ├── ca.crt                       # Cluster Certificate Authority certificate
│   ├── ca.key                       # Cluster Certificate Authority private key
│   └── ...
├── kubelet.conf                     # kubelet configuration file
├── controller-manager.conf          # kube-controller-manager configuration file
├── scheduler.conf                   # kube-scheduler configuration file
└── admin.conf                       # kubeconfig file for cluster administrator

/etc/cni/net.d/                      # Folder containing CNI configuration files

├── pods/                            # Directory containing pod volumes and data
├── pki/                             # Public Key Infrastructure for kubelet
├── config.yaml                      # kubelet manifest
└── ...

/opt/cni/bin/                        # Container Networking Interface (CNI) binaries

12 Factor Application Philosophy - source #

  1. Codebase: Manage all code in version control systems (like Git or Mercurial). The codebase comprehensively dictates what is deployed.
  2. Dependencies: Dependencies should be managed entirely and explicitly by the codebase, either vendored (stored with the code) or version pinned in a format that a package manager can install from.
  3. Config: Separate configuration parameters from the application and define them in the deployment environment instead of baking them into the application itself.
  4. Backing services: Local and remote services are both abstracted as network-accessible resources with connection details set in configuration.
  5. Build, release, run: The build stage of your application should be completely separate from your application release and operations processes. The build stage creates a deployment artifact from source code, the release stage combines the artifact and configuration, and the run stage executes the release.
  6. Processes: Applications are implemented as processes that should not rely on storing state locally. State should be offloaded to a backing service as described in the fourth factor.
  7. Port binding: Applications should natively bind to a port and listen for connections. Routing and request forwarding should be handled externally.
  8. Concurrency: Applications should rely on scaling through the process model. Running multiple copies of an application concurrently, potentially across multiple servers, allows scaling without adjusting application code.
  9. Disposability: Processes should be able to start quickly and stop gracefully without serious side effects.
  10. Dev/prod parity: Your testing, staging, and production environments should match closely and be kept in sync. Differences between environments are opportunities for incompatibilities and untested configurations to appear.
  11. Logs: Applications should stream logs to standard output so external services can decide how to best handle them.
  12. Admin processes: One-off administration processes should be run against specific releases and shipped with the main process code.

Key Terminologies - source #

  • Image It is an immutable file that contains the source code, libraries, dependencies and tools to run an app.
  • Container It is a running instance of an image.
  • Cluster It is a collection of nodes that runs containerized apps.
  • Node It is the smallest unit of computing hardware in Kubernetes.
  • Pod They are the smallest deployable units in Kubernetes. Each pod can consist of one or more containers.
  • Service It enables network access to a set of pods in Kubernetes.
  • Deployment It is used to create or modify instances of pods and provides declarative updates to apps.
  • Docker It is a set of tools for building ,sharing container images and running containers.